Therefore it begs a question what could happen if such a monster suddenly appeared or traveled to the vicinity of our solar system?
Before answering this question, let us first clarify some other questions. At what distance would it appear? Where would it come from? How massive would such a black hole be?
Possibility of encountering a black hole
Let’s begin by pointing out that our Sun is not capable of becoming a black hole since gravitational collapse of a star requires it to be 10-15 times more massive. There are no such stars in our galaxy, nor expected to be discovered. Closest to us are red dwarfs, each weighing around 8-60% of the sun’s mass.
So we are left with only two possibilities. The first one suggests that a black hole appears spontaneously in the vicinity of Earth. We can assure those fesinaring hadron colliders, big or small, this threat is minimal.
But the second possibility is more real. In 2000 astrophysicists have confirmed the presence of black holes traveling through the universe. But still, the probability of one of them passing by our solar system is miniscule. But it is worth to explore.
How black holes distort space and time
At a great distance, a black hole behaves like an ordinary object with large mass, i.e. it obeys the laws of classical mechanics as well as Newton’s law of universal gravitation. In fact, it is impossible to distinguish between a blue dwarf weighing 265 suns from a black hole of the same mass based on their behavior.
But when we get closer to the dark monster, the laws of Einstein’s general relativity theory come into play, according to which the gravitational force is capable of distorting space and time, especially if we are dealing with a black hole.
When approaching the massive monster in a spaceship, we will notice that the closer we get to the black hole, the greater effort the engines of the ship will have to exert while trying to stay on a circular orbit. A point will come when nothing can keep the steady spiral plunge into the event horizon of the black hole. Not even the light can escape from there.
You will find yourself inside a black hole heading toward singularity into the core of infinitely distorted space and time, in which known laws of physics cease to exist.
While approaching the dark monster, the time starts to slow down. For you, however, nothing will change, but for the observers on the outside the time around your ship will start to flow like syrup. When you approach the event horizon, it will look from the outside as if you were frozen motionless. Since the light cannot escape a black hole, it will be the last thing others will know about your existence.
Approach of a black hole
Imagine that the unthinkable has happened. A massive black hole outside our galaxy approached a newly-exploded supernova, which pushed the giant at speeds of several hundred kilometers per second towards our galaxy.
How will we know this is happening?
There is no way of knowing. At least unless the black hole begins to interact with a visible object, since not even the light is able to break free out of its “bowels”.
So instead of looking for a black hair on the dark carpet, let’s think about how to determine if the giant is approaching us using indirect ways.
First, the matter which has been affected by the black hole emits streams of particles that can reach us.
Secondly, the distortion of space surrounding a black hole can be detected by earth inhabitants. Gravitational lens predicted by the Einstein’s theory of relativity was repeatedly noted by astronomers near massive objects such as galaxies, black holes or our sun.
And yet, even under ideal circumstances, it will be difficult to notice the dark monster approaching. In order for astronomers to detect a change in the radiation of the star, a black hole must pass exactly between the star and us, actually crossing its rays. But even in this case, we would need a lot of luck to notice this effect.
Finally, a black hole can have a gravitational effect on celestial objects: planets, stars, asteroids and comets. Thus, we come to the original question: how far from the solar system will our hypothetical black star pass by?
Clearly, the closer the black hole is, the worse the outcomes are for us. Imagine a sparrow flying through a spider web between the branches of trees. The close proximity to this monstrous black hole can alter planetary orbit or cause distortion of the entire solar system.
If the gravity exerted by the black hole changes our orbit around the sun to be closer, or, alternatively takes it further away from it, there is a possibility of catastrophic climate changes, tsunamis, typhoons and earthquakes of an unprecedented magnitude.
In the worst case, passing of a black hole in close proximity to us can launch us right in the scorching center of the sun, or knock us out of the solar system into the coldness of space.
As once the famous astrophysicist Neil Degrassi Tyson put in perspective, “The day when a black hole decides to pay a visit to the solar system will be a very disappointing experience“.
Journey inside a black hole.
Let us now imagine that our visitor was not just a black hole, but a super-massive monster with the event horizon of more than five times of that the entire solar system. Naturally, such a giant can swallow us up with the sun and the planets just like white shark devours an unfortunate tuna fish.
But will we be able to at least look inside the dark monster? Suppose we have created a kind of protective shield that protects the planet from any outside threats, including the monstrous gravity measured in millions of G’s. Earth will make its way down the spiral orbit towards the event horizon of an unwanted visitor.
In the case when a giant black hole with a mass of five million suns, for example, the one that will be situated right in the center of our galaxy, we will have about 16 seconds to get down after crossing the event horizon, until singularity point is achieved.
During this travel, we will be able to see the stars because their light penetrates inside black holes, but distorted space and time will change them beyond recognition. It will seem to us as if we were looking through some kind of an unimaginable kaleidoscope.
Near the singularity, the entire universe around us will shrink into a thin strip of glowing blue light, and then the remnants of what once was Earth will enter into a state of infinite distortion, which borders known to us space and time.